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Before the procedure is recommended, the urologist will ask about the patient’s medical history, current prescription and over-the-counter medications, and allergies to medications, including anesthetics. The urologist will explain what the patient can expect after the procedure.
The patient may need to give a urine sample to test for a urinary tract infection (UTI). If the patient has a UTI, the urologist may treat the infection with antibiotics before performing a cystoscopy.
The urologist will be looking for anything that appears unusual. The bladder wall should be smooth, and there should not be any blockages in the lower urinary tract. During a cystoscopy, the urologist is able to see:

Bladder stones: A small stone-like mass that forms from minerals in the urine. It usually forms when urine does not completely leave the bladder and the minerals in the urine crystallize. If not treated, they can cause pain and lead to blood in the urine. A stone can also cause a blockage so that urine cannot leave the bladder.
Abnormal tissue, polyps, tumors, or cancer in the urethra or bladder
Stricture, or a narrowing of the urethra: This could be a symptom of an enlarged prostate in men or of scar tissue in the urethra.