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Molecular diagnostic approaches utilize nucleic acid detection techniques to analyse target DNA or RNA from an affected individual. Molecular-based tests can cover a range of clinical conditions from inherited genetic disease, through the full range of cancers, infectious disease agents, drug-dose or treatment response scenarios (pharmacogenomics), and even personalized treatment and prognostic investigations based upon individual genetic make-up (personalized medicine). Results from molecular diagnostic tests are used in conjunction with the presented symptoms and clinical expertize of the serving physician to better understand disease aetiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and prognosis.