Tumor Markers

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Tumor markers are substances, often proteins, that are produced by the cancer tissue itself or sometimes by the body in response to cancer growth. Because some of these substances can be detected in body samples such as blood, urine, and tissue, these markers may be used, along with other tests and procedures, to help detect and diagnose some types of cancer, predict and monitor a person’s response to certain treatments, and detect recurrence.

This list does not include the many tumor markers that are tested by immunophenotyping and immunohistochemistry to help diagnose cancer and to distinguish between different types of cancer. Some tumor markers listed below are targets for targeted therapy in multiple cancers but serve as tumor markers for only a subset of cancers.